Skyfall is filled with images of death and resurrection, but why? What exactly is dying and being reborn? What is the significance of the tunnels below Skyfall manor, why does M's death take place in a chapel, and what is the meaning of the closing scene between Mallory and Bond?
In a nutshell, Skyfall is a critique of authoritarian systems of government and the violence unleashed by the cyclical struggles to control them. This is the reason the film starts with a succession crisis at MI6. And it is the reason Sam Mendes goes so far as to depict the spy organization itself as the essential villain of his film, lurking behind Britain's democratically-elected government and operating in contempt of it, rebuffing attempts at civilian oversight and disobeying even the direct dictates of the Prime Minister. The implied menace of the anti-democratic MI6 is also why the organization is positioned quite literally in the tunnels below the city of London, where it serves as a shadow government thematically linked to the "old ways" of politics -- the knife-in-the-back or blade-to-the-throat methods of political assassination well-known to those familiar with British royal history.
When M thus remarks that the main threats to Britain come "from the shadows" and "the same place as Bond" her comments are important because they highlight the criminality of MI6 itself, the organization most responsible for the death and suffering we witness through the film. Just to provide a few examples of this, note the way the opening scene shows M causing the unnecessary deaths of two British agents (Ronson and Bond) as she overrides the better judgments of her field agents and plays games with their lives. The televised executions of NATO spies follow her similar refusal to pull endangered assets from cover, while even the ostensible villain Raoul Silva is merely avenging his earlier betrayal at her hands.
Because MI6 is a monarchical structure, all of these failures of judgment flow right from the top of the agency, where M rules as the flesh-eating "king rat" from Silva's parable. Through such small touches as her flag-draped bulldog or the recurring tune of "God Save the Queen" which plays to her grim skull-visage, M is repeatedly surrounded by iconography suggestive of her role as a murderous Queen. The connection is also reinforced by her lengthy quote from Tennyson's Ulysses midway through the film. The interior monologue of an aging monarch, the poem serves both as a comment on M's weakening grasp on power, as well as her outright rejection of the principle of democratic oversight:
We are not now that strength which in old days
Far from yield her power when threatened with usurpation both within and without, M instead clings to it and continues to assert her royal prerogative: the power to command that offers little choice to her agents other than serving the will of the crown or "ejecting" her through violence. And this is where we begin to see the deliberate tensions that Mendes creates in his film. For while Bond insists that true value of a field agent is in knowing "when not to shoot" (i.e. in having autonomy), Mendes suggests that he is naive: his superiors demand agents who follow orders blindly. Silva is betrayed to the Chinese for exercising exactly the same sort of autonomy Bond desires, while Bond's curious phrasing should also recall the opening sequence where Moneypenny fails to exercise exactly this sort of discretion while under M's explicit instruction.
The hostility of MI6 to individual autonomy is thus one of the ongoing themes of the film, and defines the major difference between the Bond and Moneypenny characters. Whereas Bond shows initiative and struggles with his loyalty to MI6, Moneypenny follows her orders unquestioningly and seems to lack her own initiative both when pulling the trigger for M in Istanbul as well as when appearing in Shanghai as a messenger for Mallory (the insinuation that she may have come to murder Bond plays to the rivalry between those male figures). Moneypenny's lack of autonomy and her refusal to play political games is why she ends the film in a disempowered secretarial role, something which puts her in sharp contrast to Bond, whose willingness to play a game of chance with power makes him a threat to the status quo. Exactly like his double Silva, Bond is a "rat" whose independent judgment makes him a challenger and implicit threat to his masters, with whom he has a love-hate relationship.
In a small aside, this characterization of these power struggles as a "game of chance" is a deliberate reference to the logic of the film as well. For if you watch Skyfall attentively, you'll notice many veiled references to political struggles as games of sorts that its participants must be willing to play, whether implicitly in M's tendency to take fifty-fifty chances with the lives of her agents, Bond's scorpion drinking game, in the discussions of risk at the Macao casino, the shooting game which follows, or in the small but pervasive references to Silva's "sadistic game" or Bond and M's complaints that they are "played out" and must "change the game."
Getting back to our main theme, one of the most interesting things about Skyfall as literate film is that it makes its argument about power struggles not only with regards to the present, but more generally by linking the events of the film to earlier political battles in British history. It is not accidental, for instance, that MI6's underground bunkers date back to Churchill and World War II. Or that they have many secret tunnels (read: political operations) which date even further back in time and are filled with "rats" (read: political agents caught in a zero-sum clash for power and prone to knifing each other in the back).
The shadow of history is also clearly evident through the role played by Skyfall manor. For those keeping track, Skyfall represents - as the birthplace of James Bond - the symbolic origins of MI6 itself. This association between the house and the authoritarian power structure is also given to us through the notion that Bond and M must travel back in time to reach the manor, as well as through an earlier reference that compares the British state itself to an old house. And it is worth noting that James' relationship to the manor (he comments that he has always hated it) is exactly the same sort of love-hate attitude he harbours regarding MI6 and M.
Even more interestingly, the script draws an explicit connection between the house and the British monarchy through the tunnels below the manor, which we are told date back to the Reformation and thus provide a reference point for the construction of the house. For those unfamiliar with British history, the Protestant Reformation marked the point in British history where Henry VIII rejected papal authority and established himself as absolute monarch. By associating the construction of Skyfall manor with this event, the script creates a link between what M represents and what the house represents, while pointing to the events of the Reformation as another example of the sort of political conflict it condemns (as M says to James says in a wonderful double-entendre, "Christ, it's no wonder you haven't come back").
And now we get to the significance of the ending, in which the destruction of the house and the death of M represent the same thing: the close of a cycle of political conflict through the death of a monarch. And this is why, as Silva recognizes, it is only suitable that the death of M herself takes place in a chapel: the cycle ends exactly where it began during the Reformation.
And this then brings us to the point of the constant death and resurrection imagery and the meaning of the ending. For while the general consensus seems to be that it is Bond himself who is resurrected, in fact what is recurring cyclically is this struggle for power itself. Sometimes the games end with death and sometimes with victory, but it is the game itself that always survives. And so in this case we end Skyfall with the death of a Queen, the ascension of a King, and the implied start of another cycle of wary gamesmanship with Bond and Mallory as the two surviving rats who will contest for the crown as the game comes full circle.
Moved earth and heaven, that which we are, we are---
One equal temper of heroic hearts,
Made weak by time and fate, but strong in will
To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield.
A work in progress. Comments and constructive complaints are welcome by email at firstname.lastname@example.org. You might also like my reading of The Dark Knight Rises. (Wednesday, January 6, 2013)